Tăng huyết áp là gì? Các công bố khoa học về Tăng huyết áp

Tăng huyết áp, còn được gọi là cao huyết áp hay huyết áp cao, là trạng thái mà áp lực huyết áp trong mạch máu luôn trong tình trạng cao hơn mức bình thường. Áp lực huyết áp cao có thể gây ra những tổn thương nghiêm trọng đến các mạch máu, tim mạch, và các cơ quan quan trọng khác trong cơ thể.
Tăng huyết áp có nghĩa là áp lực huyết áp trong mạch máu cao hơn so với mức bình thường. Bình thường, huyết áp được đo bằng hai giá trị là huyết áp tâm thu (systolic blood pressure) và huyết áp tâm trương (diastolic blood pressure), theo đơn vị mmHg.

Huyết áp tâm thu là áp lực trong mạch máu khi tim co bóp, đẩy máu ra các mạch vành để cung cấp oxy và dưỡng chất cho cơ thể. Huyết áp tâm thu được đo khi công bố giá trị trên cùng trong kết quả đo huyết áp, ví dụ như 120 trong 120/80 mmHg.

Huyết áp tâm trương là áp lực trong mạch máu khi tim của bạn thả lỏng, sau khi hết co cơ. Huyết áp tâm trương được đo khi công bố giá trị dưới cùng trong kết quả đo huyết áp, ví dụ như 80 trong 120/80 mmHg.

Tăng huyết áp được phân loại thành ba mức:
1. Tăng huyết áp độ 1: Huyết áp tâm thu từ 130 đến 139 mmHg hoặc huyết áp tâm trương từ 80 đến 89 mmHg.
2. Tăng huyết áp độ 2: Huyết áp tâm thu từ 140 đến 159 mmHg hoặc huyết áp tâm trương từ 90 đến 99 mmHg.
3. Tăng huyết áp độ 3: Huyết áp tâm thu 160 mmHg trở lên hoặc huyết áp tâm trương 100 mmHg trở lên.

Tăng huyết áp có thể gây ra các vấn đề sức khỏe nghiêm trọng như bệnh tim mạch, đột quỵ, suy thận, tổn thương các mạch máu, giãn vòng động mạch và tăng nguy cơ mắc các bệnh khác như tiểu đường và béo phì.

Nguyên nhân của tăng huyết áp có thể do di truyền, tuổi tác, chế độ ăn uống không lành mạnh, tình trạng mắc các bệnh lý khác như bệnh thận, béo phì, tiểu đường, căng thẳng, hút thuốc lá, uống nhiều cồn, thiếu vận động, và một số yếu tố khác.

Để kiểm tra và chẩn đoán tăng huyết áp, thông thường cần thực hiện hàng loạt đo huyết áp theo một thời gian dài và kiểm tra các yếu tố rủi ro sức khỏe khác. Điều trị tăng huyết áp thường bao gồm thay đổi lối sống lành mạnh, như ăn uống lành mạnh, tập thể dục đều đặn, giảm stress, kiểm soát cân nặng, hạn chế cồn và hút thuốc lá, cùng với thuốc điều trị khi cần thiết.

Danh sách công bố khoa học về chủ đề "tăng huyết áp":

Dynamic self-assembly in living systems as computation
Natural Computing - Tập 5 - Trang 321-362 - 2006
Ann M. Bouchard, Gordon C. Osbourn
Biochemical reactions taking place in living systems that map different inputs to specific outputs are intuitively recognized as performing information processing. Conventional wisdom distinguishes such proteins, whose primary function is to transfer and process information, from proteins that perform the vast majority of the construction, maintenance, and actuation tasks of the cell (assembling and disassembling macromolecular structures, producing movement, and synthesizing and degrading molecules). In this paper, we examine the computing capabilities of biological processes in the context of the formal model of computing known as the random access machine (RAM) [Dewdney AK (1993) The New Turing Omnibus. Computer Science Press, New York], which is equivalent to a Turing machine [Minsky ML (1967) Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ]. When viewed from the RAM perspective, we observe that many of these dynamic self-assembly processes – synthesis, degradation, assembly, movement – do carry out computational operations. We also show that the same computing model is applicable at other hierarchical levels of biological systems (e.g., cellular or organism networks as well as molecular networks). We present stochastic simulations of idealized protein networks designed explicitly to carry out a numeric calculation. We explore the reliability of such computations and discuss error-correction strategies (algorithms) employed by living systems. Finally, we discuss some real examples of dynamic self-assembly processes that occur in living systems, and describe the RAM computer programs they implement. Thus, by viewing the processes of living systems from the RAM perspective, a far greater fraction of these processes can be understood as computing than has been previously recognized.
Immunofluorescence serology
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - Tập 3 - Trang 343-351 - 1985
E. Edlinger
Competitive resource sharing by Internet Service Providers
NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking - Tập 11 - Trang 149-179 - 2010
Gireesh Shrimali
We look at non-cooperative resource sharing (a generalization of paid peering) among Internet Service Providers (ISPs), where individually rational providers who not only compete for customers but also participate in resource sharing, in order to utilize underlying complementarities in cost structures. In particular, we are interested in the following question: would simple, easy-to-implement access pricing mechanisms guarantee ex-ante participation in resource sharing even by providers who, subsequent to deciding participation, engage in competition for customers, set access prices and make routing decisions? We first show that, in presence of linear access pricing, participation in the sharing arrangement is possible, but not guaranteed. We then show that a two-part tariff guarantees participation in the sharing agreement—this is not obvious given that resource sharing alters customer bases. We also show that our mechanism is robust to providers mis-reporting their types. Next, we show that, though both providers choose strictly positive customer bases, one of the them has no incentive to utilize the resources of the other and effectively acts as a resource supplier, whereas the other provider utilizes both resources. Finally, we show the robustness of our results to different cost structure and game forms, and provide some policy implications. Our results have significant implications not only for policy design since they suggest that paid peering should be encouraged but also for design of realistic traffic engineering protocols.
Synthesis and Li-storage property of flower-like SbPO4 microspheres
Materials Letters - Tập 224 - Trang 100-104 - 2018
Ming Ou, Yan Ling, Lin Ma, Zhiheng Liu, Dengqin Luo, Limei Xu
Gut microbiota related response of Oryzias melastigma to combined exposure of polystyrene microplastics and tetracycline
Science of the Total Environment - Tập 905 - Trang 167359 - 2023
Peiqiang Zhao, Wenjia Lu, Ricardo David Avellán-Llaguno, Xin Liao, Guozhu Ye, Zhizhen Pan, Anyi Hu, Qiansheng Huang
ras and c-myc protein expression in colorectal carcinoma
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum - Tập 35 - Trang 430-435 - 1992
Felice Miller, Tomas M. Heimann, Astrid Quish, Daniel J. Pyo, Arnold Szporn, Giorgio Martinelli, Thomas M. Fasy
This study was performed to determine the correlation of tumor ras and c-myc oncogene expression with clinical and prognostic variables in patients prone to develop colorectal cancer. One hundred eighteen patients with colorectal cancer were studied; mean age was 40 years. Fifty-three were young patients (age 40 or less), 49 had ulcerative colitis, and 16 had multiple polyposis coli. Immunoperoxidase stains of paraffin-embedded cancer sections were performed for the c-myc and ras proteins.ras staining was found to correlate with Dukes stage and prognosis. Patients with tumors negative for ras protein stain had an actuarial five-year survival of 61 percent versus 44 percent for those tumors with a positive stain (P <0.05). This correlation was not seen with the c-myc stain. Positive ras oncogene stain appears to be a useful indicator of advanced stage and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer occurring in cancer-prone patients.
Effects of ordered mutations on dynamics in signaling networks
BMC Medical Genomics - Tập 13 - Trang 1-12 - 2020
Maulida Mazaya, Hung-Cuong Trinh, Yung-Keun Kwon
Many previous clinical studies have found that accumulated sequential mutations are statistically related to tumorigenesis. However, they are limited in fully elucidating the significance of the ordered-mutation because they did not focus on the network dynamics. Therefore, there is a pressing need to investigate the dynamics characteristics induced by ordered-mutations. To quantify the ordered-mutation-inducing dynamics, we defined the mutation-sensitivity and the order-specificity that represent if the network is sensitive against a double knockout mutation and if mutation-sensitivity is specific to the mutation order, respectively, using a Boolean network model. Through intensive investigations, we found that a signaling network is more sensitive when a double-mutation occurs in the direction order inducing a longer path and a smaller number of paths than in the reverse order. In addition, feedback loops involving a gene pair decreased both the mutation-sensitivity and the order-specificity. Next, we investigated relationships of functionally important genes with ordered-mutation-inducing dynamics. The network is more sensitive to mutations subject to drug-targets, whereas it is less specific to the mutation order. Both the sensitivity and specificity are increased when different-drug-targeted genes are mutated. Further, we found that tumor suppressors can efficiently suppress the amplification of oncogenes when the former are mutated earlier than the latter. Taken together, our results help to understand the importance of the order of mutations with respect to the dynamical effects in complex biological systems.
Mobility analysis of surface roughness scattering in FinFET devices
Solid-State Electronics - Tập 62 - Trang 195-201 - 2011
Jae Woo Lee, Doyoung Jang, Mireille Mouis, Gyu Tae Kim, Thomas Chiarella, Thomas Hoffmann, Gérard Ghibaudo
Study on model fostering for cloud service brokerage
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques - Tập 11 - Trang 181-192 - 2015
Sung Choi
The growing company that provides high quality service to every customer by introducing a cloud system organization. However, the information needs diverse and different cloud systems, so every cloud system can act as a security system that provide appropriate cloud systems. Cloud services are becoming complicated and diversified depending on concerns about cloud security continues, the growing need of professionalism held by the cloud service (CSB : cloud service brokerage) companies. Thus, to analyze the various services, find my support legislation to solve, security and delete compatibility issues, the services of the best new business through service offerings tailored to the environment, and will implement the necessary management services which which is brokerage (CSB). This study presents a brokerage (CSB) development model, and suggests policy measures that apply to the co-operation that I am having difficulties in cloud service business models.
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