Chấn thương ngực kín là một loại chấn thương xảy ra khi ngực bị va đập, va chạm hoặc bị tác động mạnh mà không có một vết thương rõ ràng ngoài da. Thông thường, chấn thương ngực kín xảy ra khi có sức tác động mạnh vào vùng ngực, dẫn đến tổn thương các cơ, mô và cấu trúc bên trong ngực như cơ tim, phổi, xương ức, gãy xương sườn, bình phổi, mạch và dây thần kinh. Triệu chứng thường gặp của chấn thương ngực kín bao gồm đau ngực, khó thở, nguy cơ hậu quả nguy hiểm cho sức khỏe như chảy máu nội tạng, xâm nhập không khí vào không gian nội soi và gây sốc. Để chẩn đoán và điều trị chấn thương ngực kín, bệnh nhân cần được khám và kiểm tra bởi bác sĩ chuyên khoa phẫu thuật tim mạch hoặc phẫu thuật viên ngực để đảm bảo sự an toàn và giữ lại chức năng của các cơ quan bên trong ngực.
Chấn thương ngực kín có thể gây ra một loạt các tổn thương và vấn đề sức khỏe. Dưới đây là một số tổn thương thường gặp và chi tiết hơn về chúng:
1. Gãy xương sườn: Đây là một trong những tổn thương phổ biến nhất trong chấn thương ngực kín. Khi ngực va đập mạnh, các xương sườn có thể bị gãy hoặc nứt. Đau ngực, đau khi thở sâu và khó thở là những triệu chứng thường gặp.
2. Tổn thương phổi: Sức tác động mạnh vào ngực có thể gây ra tổn thương cho phổi, gọi là chấn thương phổi hoặc chấn thương phổi kéo dãn. Điều này có thể dẫn đến việc suy hô hấp, khó thở và thiếu ôxy.
3. Cơ tim bị tổn thương: Chấn thương ngực kín có thể gây vỡ hoặc rách các cơ tim. Đau ngực, nhịp tim không ổn định và nguy cơ suy tim là những vấn đề có thể xảy ra.
4. Xâm nhập không khí vào không gian nội soi: Chấn thương ngực kín cũng có thể gây ra khoảng trống trong ngực, cho phép không khí xâm nhập vào không gian nội soi giữa phổi và màng phổi. Điều này có thể là nguyên nhân gây giãn phổi, làm giảm khả năng phổi tham gia vào quá trình hô hấp.
5. Chảy máu nội tạng: Một sức tác động mạnh vào ngực có thể gây chấn thương cho các cơ quan bên trong như tim, phổi, gan và thận. Điều này có thể dẫn đến chảy máu nội tạng, là tình trạng nguy hiểm đe dọa tính mạng.
Để chẩn đoán chấn thương ngực kín, bác sĩ sẽ thực hiện một loạt các xét nghiệm và kiểm tra y tế, như x-quang ngực, siêu âm, CT scanner và các phương pháp chẩn đoán hình ảnh khác. Tuỳ thuộc vào mức độ và vị trí tổn thương, liệu pháp điều trị có thể bao gồm quản lý đau, tư thế nằm, hỗ trợ hô hấp, phẫu thuật và/hoặc điều trị các vấn đề khác theo yêu cầu. Rất quan trọng để chấn thương ngực kín được chẩn đoán và điều trị một cách nhanh chóng để đảm bảo an toàn và phục hồi sức khỏe tốt nhất cho bệnh nhân.
Parkinson’s disease-associated LRRK2-G2019S mutant acts through regulation of SERCA activity to control ER stress in astrocytes
Acta neuropathologica communications - Tập 7 Số 1 - Trang 1-19 - 2019
Accumulating evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and further suggests that several PD-related genes are responsible for ER dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we defined the mechanism by which LRRK2-G2019S (LRRK2-GS), a pathogenic mutation in the PD-associated gene LRRK2, accelerates ER stress and cell death. Treatment of cells with α-synuclein increased the expression of ER stress proteins and subsequent cell death in LRRK2-GS astrocytes. Intriguingly, we found that LRRK2-GS localizes to the ER membrane, where it interacts with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and suppress its activity by preventing displacement of phospholamban (PLN). LRRK2-GS–mediated SERCA malfunction leads to ER Ca2+ depletion, which induces the formation of mitochondria-ER contacts and subsequent Ca2+ overload in mitochondria, ultimately resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. Collectively, our data suggest that, in astrocytes, LRRK2-GS impairs ER Ca2+ homeostasis, which determines cell survival, and as a result, could contribute to the development of PD.
Formulation of chicken sausages with broiler blood proteins and dye
Journal of Food Science and Technology - Tập 55 Số 11 - Trang 4694-4699 - 2018
Dye and proteins recovered from broiler blood were used in the formulation of chicken sausages in substitution of soy proteins and synthetic dyes. Three formulations of chicken sausages were prepared: standard, liquid plasma, and freeze-dried plasma. The application of protein and blood dye in the formulation of sausages and sensory analysis followed the Brazilian legislation. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes of sausages were evaluated during 60. All the formulations met the physicochemical and microbiological requirements. Considering the sensory analysis, sausages prepared using freeze-dried plasma presented significant difference from the standard sausage. There was no significant difference in the acceptance between the standard and liquid plasma sausages. Therefore, the use of such byproducts can add value to meat products without any adverse effect consumers acceptability.
Metabolic factors and risk of thyroid cancer in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can)
Cancer Causes and Control - Tập 22 - Trang 743-751 - 2011
To investigate metabolic factors and their possible impact on risk of thyroid cancer. A prospective cohort study was conducted based on seven population-based cohorts in Norway, Austria, and Sweden, in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can). Altogether 578,700 men and women with a mean age of 44.0 years at baseline were followed for on average 12.0 years. Relative risk of incident thyroid cancer was assessed by levels of BMI, blood pressure, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and by a combined metabolic syndrome (MetS) score. Risk estimates were investigated for quintiles, and a z score distribution of exposures was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. During follow-up, 255 women and 133 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. In women, there was an inverse association between glucose and thyroid cancer risk, with adjusted RR: 95% CI was 0.61 (0.41–0.90), p trend = 0.02 in the fifth versus the first quintile, and a positive association between BMI and thyroid cancer risk with a significant trend over quintiles. There was no association between the other metabolic factors, single or combined (Met-S), and thyroid cancer. In women, BMI was positively, while blood glucose levels were inversely, associated with thyroid cancer.
High-efficiency flame-retardant epoxy resin using phosphoraphenanthrene/thiazole-based co-curing agent
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry - Tập 148 - Trang 10115-10124 - 2023
To alleviate the fire hazard of epoxy resin (EP), an efficient flame retardant (ADM) containing phosphophenanthrene and thiazole groups is synthesized and used as co-curing agent for 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane to prepare EP/ADM composites. EP/4 mass% ADM composites with phosphorus content of only 0.25 mass% reach UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index value is high to 35.8%. The results reveal that the peak heat release rate, total smoke production, and total heat release of EP/4 mass% ADM composites are reduced by 24%, 14.4% and 16.7%, respectively, in comparison with those of pure EP. The improvement in flame retardancy is mainly attributed to the decomposition of DOPO which produces HPO• and PO• to capture the reactive radicals in the gaseous phase. The thiazole group releases hindered amine groups and inactive gas with a dilution effect in the gaseous phase thus further enhancing the effect of the phosphophenanthrene group. Besides, ADM helps to increase the glass transition temperature (Tg) of EP/ADM composites, which is 176 °C for EP/4 mass% ADM composites, which is higher than the value (172 °C) of EP.
Isoelectric focusing, effect of reducing agents and inhibitors: partial characterization of proteases extracted from Bromelia karatas
Applied Biological Chemistry - Tập 61 - Trang 459-467 - 2018
The aim of this research is the partial characterization of proteases extracted from B. karatas; the isolation and purification of proteases from B. karatas fruits were achieved using precipitation, separation by size exclusion chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography; molecular mass (MM) was determined, and the effect of inhibitors, reducing agents and heat on enzyme activity was analyzed. These proteases were compared with proteases from Bromelia pinguin (B. pinguin) and evaluated under similar conditions. The isolation procedure was adequate; only a few protein bands are present in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, zymogram analysis showed protein bands with enzyme activity. Inhibitors, reducing agents and heat were unable to inactivate the proteases extracted from B. karatas and B. pinguin. The semi-purified extracts are a set of proteases with a MM of 66 kDa, but different isoelectric points (3.5–6.5 for B. karatas and 5–9 for B. pinguin), which are found in quaternary structures with proteolytic activity. When denatured, they segment into fragments of approximately 20 and 10 kDa. The data indicate that these plants could be used as sources of proteases since they present good proteolytic activity (21.93 UT for proteases from B. karatas and 43.58 UT for proteases from B. pinguin) and that B. Karatas has potential applications comparable to B. pinguin in the food and health industries.
Association of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, severity with electrocardiographic findings, and carotid artery atherosclerosis
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation - Tập 46 Số 1 - Trang 11-20 - 2019
The aim was to detect specific ECG changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients as well as to study atherosclerotic changes of the carotid arteries as an indicator of cardiovascular system risk factors and to correlate findings with disease activity and severity parameters to elucidate possible associations between these variables. This study included 30 RA patients, 30 age-matched and sex-matched systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 30 age-matched and sex-matched healthy volunteers as control groups. The patients were subjected to clinical examination, assessment of disease activity score-28 (DAS28), functional disability Health Assessment Questionnaire, and laboratory and radiological assessments. ECG and measurement of the carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound scan was also done. Ten (33.3%) RA patients had ECG abnormalities, with ST or T-wave abnormality being the most common abnormality present. RA patients had the highest frequencies of ECG abnormalities. Most ECG changes occurred in RA patients using steroids (90%). ST or T-wave abnormality in RA occurred more in patients with a higher swollen joint count, higher DAS28, and a higher patients’ global health assessment. RA patients had the highest mean. The mean CIMT was significantly higher in RA patients with ECG abnormalities. There were significant positive correlations of average CIMT with DAS28, Health Assessment Questionnaire, and Simple Erosion Narrowing Score. There were significant positive correlations of mean CIMT with the level of triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a highly significant correlation between mean CIMT and C-reactive protein. CIMT at a cut-off point of 0.75 mm can predict ECG abnormalities with high sensitivity and specificity. ECG changes were present in 33.3% of RA patients. Increased CIMT was observed in RA patients and correlated well with disease activity and severity parameters.
Stress in physical education teachers in Qatar
Social Psychology of Education - Tập 10 - Trang 55-75 - 2007
Stress is an area of interest among researchers and practitioners in many fields – including teaching. Much of the research on causes of stress for teachers has focused on teachers in general; only a few studies have focused on physical education teachers. Although there have been a few studies of causes of stress for physical education teachers in the Middle East, no studies have been conducted on physical education teachers in Qatar. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify causes of stress for physical education teachers in Qatar at the beginning and end of the school year as well as any changes over the course of the year. A second purpose was to try to explain any differences in causes of stress according to: gender, nationality, type of school, and amount of experience. Results showed that there were different causes of stress for different groups of teachers which could be related to different backgrounds and experiences and different roles and responsibilities in society as a result of different cultural and social expectations and environmental factors.
556 Financiering Opleidingsfonds
Zorg en Financiering - Tập 5 - Trang 102-102 - 2006
Het kabinet heeft besloten om het nieuw op te richten opleidingsfonds voor de bekostiging van zorgopleidingen te financieren via het zorgverzekeringsfonds. Om het opleidingsfonds te realiseren wordt ongeveer vijfhonderd miljoen euro uit het zorgverzekeringsfonds afgezonderd voor de eerste tranche zorgopleidingen vanaf 2007.