Levofloxacin là gì? Các công bố khoa học về Levofloxacin

Levofloxacin là một loại thuốc kháng sinh thuộc nhóm fluoroquinolone. Nó được sử dụng để điều trị các nhiễm trùng do vi khuẩn như viêm phổi, viêm xoang, viêm tai giữa, viêm niệu đạo, viêm bàng quang, viêm niệu quản, nhiễm trùng da và các bệnh nhiễm trùng khác. Levofloxacin hoạt động bằng cách ngăn chặn sự phát triển và sinh sản của vi khuẩn gây bệnh.
Levofloxacin hoạt động bằng cách ức chế một enzym quan trọng trong vi khuẩn gọi là DNA gyrase. Enzym này có nhiệm vụ giải quyết sự quấn vào trên một số bộ phận của DNA, giúp vi khuẩn sao chép, tái tạo và phân chia. Bằng cách ức chế hoạt động của DNA gyrase, levofloxacin ngăn chặn vi khuẩn tiếp tục sinh sản và phát triển.

Levofloxacin có tác dụng phổ rộng với nhiều loại vi khuẩn, bao gồm cả vi khuẩn Gram âm và Gram dương. Nó cũng có hiệu quả đối với một số vi khuẩn kháng kháng sinh, nhưng cần tuân thủ đúng liều lượng và thời gian điều trị để tránh sự phát triển kháng chiến.

Thuốc này thường được sử dụng theo đường uống hoặc tiêm tĩnh mạch. Liều lượng và thời gian điều trị cụ thể sẽ phụ thuộc vào loại nhiễm trùng và mức độ nghiêm trọng của bệnh. Nên tuân thủ chính xác đơn thuốc của bác sĩ và không nên tự ý dùng levofloxacin khi không có sự chỉ định của chuyên gia y tế.
Levofloxacin có tác dụng trị liệu đối với nhiều loại nhiễm trùng do vi khuẩn, bao gồm:

1. Viêm phổi: Levofloxacin được sử dụng để điều trị viêm phổi cộng đồng, viêm phổi do vi khuẩn như Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae và Moraxella catarrhalis.

2. Viêm xoang: Đối với viêm xoang cấp tính và viêm xoang mãn, levofloxacin có thể được sử dụng khi nhiễm trùng do vi khuẩn hoặc khi có dấu hiệu nhiễm trùng lâu dài.

3. Viêm tai giữa: Levofloxacin có thể được sử dụng trong trường hợp viêm tai giữa nhưng chỉ khi các thuốc kháng sinh khác không hiệu quả hoặc kháng sinh định danh được.

4. Nhiễm trùng đường tiết niệu: Levofloxacin được sử dụng để điều trị nhiễm trùng niệu đạo, nhiễm trùng bàng quang và nhiễm trùng niệu quản.

5. Nhiễm trùng da và cấu trúc da: Levofloxacin có thể được sử dụng để điều trị các nhiễm trùng da như viêm da tiết bã và viêm móng.

Tuy nhiên, điều quan trọng là chỉ sử dụng levofloxacin theo hướng dẫn của bác sĩ. Cần làm rõ liều lượng, tần suất và thời gian điều trị để đạt được hiệu quả tối ưu và tránh tác dụng phụ không mong muốn.

Danh sách công bố khoa học về chủ đề "levofloxacin":

Assessing the role of short-term weather forecasts in fire manager tactical decision-making: a choice experiment
Fire Ecology - - Trang 1-17 - 2021
Claire E. Rapp, Robyn S. Wilson, Eric L. Toman, W. Matt Jolly
Weather plays an integral role in fire management due to the direct and indirect effects it has on fire behavior. However, fire managers may not use all information available to them during the decision-making process, instead utilizing mental shortcuts that can bias decision-making. Thus, it is important to evaluate if (and how) fire managers use information like weather forecasts when making tactical decisions. We explore USDA Forest Service fire manager confidence in relative humidity, precipitation, and wind models. We then use a choice experiment where key weather attributes were varied to explore how sensitive fire managers were to changes in specific weather variables when choosing to directly or indirectly attack a fire that is transitioning to extended attack. Respondents were less confident in the accuracy of wind and precipitation forecasts than relative humidity or weather forecasts more generally. The influence of weather information on the decision depended on the framing used in the choice experiment; specifically, whether respondents were told the initial strategy had been to directly or indirectly attack the fire. Across conditions, fire managers generally preferred to indirectly attack the fire. Decisions about the tactics to apply going forward were more sensitive to time in season when the fire was occurring and wind and precipitation forecasts than to other attributes. The results have implications for the design of decision support tools developed to support fire management. Results suggest how fire managers’ use of fire weather information to evaluate forecast conditions and adjust future management decisions may vary depending on the management decision already in place. If fire weather-based decision support tools are to support the use of the best available information to make fire management decisions, careful attention may be needed to debias any effect of prior decisions. For example, decision support tools may encourage users to “consider the opposite,” i.e., consider if they would react differently if different initial decision with similar conditions were in place. The results also highlight the potential importance of either improving wind and precipitation forecast models or improving confidence in existing models.
Impact of Climate Change on Streamflow in the Tropical Lowland of Kapuas River, West Borneo, Indonesia
Procedia Engineering - - Trang 185-192 - 2015
Henny Herawati, Suripin, Suharyanto
Chapter 5 Recent Advances in the Treatment of Insomnia
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry - - Trang 63-80 - 2007
Albert Palomer, Marta Príncep, Antonio Guglietta
In vitro growth of murine T cells
Cellular Immunology - - Trang 293-306 - 1980
Steven A. Rosenberg, Paul J. Spiess, Susan Schwarz
Progredient dermatophytosis and nevus anemicus: a pathogenetic mediated relationship
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift - - Trang 83-84 - 2016
G. Tchernev, A. A. Chokoeva
Using a life‐story approach in researching entrepreneurial learning: the development of a conceptual model and its implications in the design of learning experiences
Emerald - - Trang 220-228 - 2000
David Rae, Mary Carswell
Summarises the conclusions from research which explores how people learn to start and grow high performing businesses. Seeks to understand better the ways in which individuals learn to act entrepreneurially and also suggests how this understanding might influence the design of more effective learning experiences. Proposes a conceptual model of entrepreneurial learning, and assesses its implications for designing entrepreneurship education and development programmes. Findings indicate that there would be benefits from designing development programmes for current and aspirant business owners with a greater emphasis on personal development, based upon the entrepreneurial learning model proposed in the article.
Somatic Mutations Predict Poor Prognosis in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients with Normal Karyotypes
Blood - - Trang 44-45 - 2020
Xiangzong Zeng, Min Dai, Yu Zhang, Lingling Zhou, Ya Zhou, Qifa Liu
Purpose: Somatic mutations are common in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but its risk stratification is mainly based on cytogenetics. This study was to explore the prognostic significance of somatic mutations in MDS patients with normal karyotypes. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and four patients with MDS were enrolled in this retrospective study. A genomic panel of 127 gene targets were detected by next-generation sequencing. Results: Two hundred and Eighty-one (92.4%) patients carried at least one somatic mutation, while cytogenetics identified abnormalities in 140 (46.1%) patients. The 5 most frequently mutated genes were TET2, ASXL1, EZH2, TET1, FAT1, and TET2, TP53, TET1, EP300, SF3B1 in the patients with normal karyotypes and aberrant karyotypes, respectively. When mutations detected in >5% of the whole cohort, they were included in analysis and the results showed that the frequency of TET2, TP53, ASXL1, CD101, KDM6A, SH2B3 and IL-3RA mutations was different between two groups(all P<0.05). ASXL1, CD101, KDM6A, SH2B3, IL-3RA mutations were more common in normal karyotype group, while TET2 and TP53 were more common in aberrant karyotype group. Multivariable analysis showed that age (HR 1.02; P=0.027), IPSS-R(HR 1.80; P<0.0001), TP53(HR 2.36; P<0.0001) and DNMT3A (HR 1.83, P=0.044) were the risk factors while allo-HSCT(HR 0.50; P=0.001) was a protect factor for OS in the whole cohort. For sub-group analysis, IPSS-R(HR 1.54; P=0.005; HR 1.80; P<0.0001, respectively), TP53 mutation(HR 2.49; P=0.030; HR 2.13; P=0.005, respectively) and allo-HSCT(HR 0.52; P=0.040; HR 0.37; P<0.0001, respectively) retained the prognostic significance in both the normal karyotype and aberrant karyotype group. FAT1(HR 2.32; P=0.019), DNMT3A(HR 3.32; P=0.006) and IL-7R(HR 4.35; P=0.002) mutations were unfavorable factors for OS only in the normal karyotype group. Conclusion: FAT1, IL-7R and DNMT3A mutations pretict poor prognosis in MDS patients with normal karyotypes. Key words: Somatic mutation, Next-generation sequencing, Prognosis, Myelodysplastic syndrome Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Bronchogenic cyst of the stomach involved with gastric adenocarcinoma
Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology - - Trang 80-84 - 2008
Hiroaki Shibahara, Toshiyuki Arai, Shunpei Yokoi, Seijun Hayakawa
Bronchogenic cyst, a congenital anomaly mostly found in the mediastinum, rarely arises in the stomach. A 43-year-old man had epigastric pain and was diagnosed as having gastric adenocarcinoma. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatic cyst, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion near the stomach. At surgery, the cystic lesion was found to be located at the lesser curvature of the stomach where the cancer invasion was seen. Total gastrectomy with combined resection of the cystic lesion was performed. Pathologically, the cyst wall was lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, subepithelial mixed seromucinous glands and smooth muscle bundles. The pathological diagnosis was bronchogenic cyst of the stomach involved with gastric adenocarcinoma. Based on a similar association between gastric diffuse submucosal cysts and gastric cancer in the previous reports, it is possible that chronic inflammation from bronchogenic cysts to the gastric mucosa may cause adenocarcinoma in the stomach. At surgery, complete combined resection without rupture of the bronchogenic cyst involved with the gastric adenocarcinoma is needed for treatment of gastric cancer to prevent dissemination of cancer cells considering when cancer cells have invaded beyond the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and within the bronchogenic cyst.
A Longitudinal Study of the Association of Opioid Use with Change in Pain Interference and Functional Limitations in a Nationally Representative Cohort of Adults with Osteoarthritis in the United States
Advances in Therapy - - Trang 819-832 - 2019
Drishti Shah, Xiaohui Zhao, Wenhui Wei, Kavita Gandhi, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Lynn Webster, Usha Sambamoorthi
Real-world data are sparse on longitudinal associations of opioid use with pain interference with activities (PIA) and daily function with osteoarthritis (OA) in the USA. Data from the 2010–2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were analyzed for community-dwelling adults with OA. Opioid use patterns were defined as persistent, intermittent, and no use. Evaluated outcomes were a change in PIA and functional limitations (activities of daily living [ADL], instrumental ADL [IADL], social and work activities, and cognitive function). Multivariable regression analyses explored the association of persistent/intermittent versus no opioid use with PIA and functional limitations. Results were weighted for the US population. Among 4172 patients (66.2% female, 80.8% white, mean age 61.7 years), 62.1% reported no PIA change at follow-up, 17.9% worsened, and 20.0% improved. Although 51.0–93.1% of patients reported no functional limitations, 3.8–13.1% worsened (1.1–11.3% improved). Relative to no opioid use, persistent users had higher odds of severe/extreme PIA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95–4.32; P < 0.001) and moderate PIA (AOR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.31–3.20; P < 0.01) at follow-up. For patients with baseline functional limitations, persistent opioid users were more likely to report physical and work limitations at follow-up (both P < 0.05). For patients without baseline functional limitations, persistent opioid users had higher odds than those without use of reporting IADL, physical, social, and cognitive limitations at follow-up (all P < 0.05); intermittent users were more likely to report physical and social limitations (both P < 0.05). Persistent opioid use for pain in patients with OA appeared to be associated with poorer PIA and functional outcomes, regardless of baseline functional status. These findings highlight the importance of patient-reported outcomes for opioid benefit–risk assessment and suggest the need for alternative analgesic approaches.
COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission vary with age and sex: results from the ISARIC prospective multinational observational study
Infection - - Trang 889-905 - 2021
The ISARIC prospective multinational observational study is the largest cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We present relationships of age, sex, and nationality to presenting symptoms. International, prospective observational study of 60 109 hospitalized symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 recruited from 43 countries between 30 January and 3 August 2020. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships of age and sex to published COVID-19 case definitions and the most commonly reported symptoms. ‘Typical’ symptoms of fever (69%), cough (68%) and shortness of breath (66%) were the most commonly reported. 92% of patients experienced at least one of these. Prevalence of typical symptoms was greatest in 30- to 60-year-olds (respectively 80, 79, 69%; at least one 95%). They were reported less frequently in children (≤ 18 years: 69, 48, 23; 85%), older adults (≥ 70 years: 61, 62, 65; 90%), and women (66, 66, 64; 90%; vs. men 71, 70, 67; 93%, each P < 0.001). The most common atypical presentations under 60 years of age were nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain, and over 60 years was confusion. Regression models showed significant differences in symptoms with sex, age and country. This international collaboration has allowed us to report reliable symptom data from the largest cohort of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Adults over 60 and children admitted to hospital with COVID-19 are less likely to present with typical symptoms. Nausea and vomiting are common atypical presentations under 30 years. Confusion is a frequent atypical presentation of COVID-19 in adults over 60 years. Women are less likely to experience typical symptoms than men.
Tổng số: 2,324,103   
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 232411