Bệnh loãng xương là gì? Các công bố khoa học về Bệnh loãng xương

Bệnh loãng xương, còn gọi là loãng xương, là một tình trạng mà xương mất đi độ dẻo dai và mật độ xương giảm, dẫn đến tăng nguy cơ gãy xương. Bệnh thường phát triển dần theo thời gian và không gây triệu chứng rõ ràng ban đầu. Người mắc bệnh loãng xương có nguy cơ cao hơn bị gãy xương khi gặp chấn thương nhẹ hoặc thậm chí trong các hoạt động hàng ngày. Các nguyên nhân gây ra loãng xương có thể bao gồm lão hóa tự nhiên, thiếu canxi và vitamin D, tiền sử gia đình, hormone giới tính, tiền sử loãng xương, thuốc steroid hoặc bệnh dự phòng và điều trị ung thư.
Bệnh loãng xương, hay còn gọi là osteoporosis, là một bệnh xương phổ biến, đặc biệt ở phụ nữ sau mãn kinh. Bệnh xảy ra khi quá trình tái tạo mô xương không cân bằng, làm cho xương mất mật độ và trở nên dễ gãy.

Nguyên nhân chính của loãng xương là do mất cân đối giữa quá trình hình thành xương mới và quá trình phá huỷ xương cũ. Khi cơ thể không cung cấp đủ canxi để xây dựng xương mới hoặc không tạo đủ hormone cần thiết để duy trì mật độ xương, quá trình phá huỷ xương phá vỡ sự cân đối và gây ra loãng xương.

Những yếu tố tăng nguy cơ mắc bệnh loãng xương bao gồm: tuổi cao (sau 50 tuổi), giới tính nữ, tiền sử gia đình về loãng xương, tiền sử gãy xương không rõ nguyên nhân, thói quen sống không lành mạnh (hút thuốc, uống rượu, thiếu vận động), ăn ít canxi và vitamin D, sử dụng lâu dài corticosteroid, tiền sử bệnh giảm tiễn dịch (như lupus, viêm mạn tính đại tràng), menopause sớm hoặc tác động âm hộ.

Triệu chứng của bệnh loãng xương thường không rõ ràng cho đến khi xảy ra gãy xương. Các vùng xương thường bị ảnh hưởng nhiều là xương cột sống, cổ đùi và cổ tay. Gãy xương do loãng xương thường xảy ra sau chấn thương nhỏ hoặc tác động nhẹ, như ngã nhẹ hoặc vọt ngón chân. Các biện pháp phòng ngừa và điều trị loãng xương bao gồm bổ sung canxi và vitamin D, tăng cường hoạt động thể chất, giữ cân nặng, tránh thuốc corticosteroid lâu dài, sử dụng thuốc được chỉ định như bisphosphonates và hormone thay thế trong trường hợp cần thiết.

Nếu bạn có nguy cơ mắc bệnh loãng xương hoặc có các triệu chứng liên quan đến xương, hãy tham khảo ý kiến của bác sĩ để được tư vấn và chẩn đoán chính xác.

Danh sách công bố khoa học về chủ đề "bệnh loãng xương":

Assessment of Regional Longitudinal Myocardial Strain Rate Derived from Doppler Myocardial Imaging Indexes in Normal and Infarcted Myocardium
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography - - Trang 588-598 - 2000
Jens-Uwe Voigt, Martina F. Arnold, Matts Karlsson, Leila Hübbert, Tomasz Kukulski, Liv Hatle, George R. Sutherland
A 55-year-old woman with locally advanced rectal cancer and a resectable synchronous hepatic metastasis: a case report
Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - - Trang 273-276 - 2012
Florian Hohla, Peter Mayer, Jörg Hutter, Thomas Meißnitzer, Richard Greil
We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman initially diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer and one synchronous hepatic metastasis in 1998 who was treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy followed by resection of the rectum and simultaneous atypical liver resection. After complete remission for about 4 years, the patient metachronously developed two local relapses and a liver metastasis, which were curatively treated by means of either radical resection or local ablative therapies and chemotherapy. Since the patient has refused radical resection of pulmonary metastases in November 2010, she is under palliative chemotherapy and is still alive. This case illustrates that a multimodality treatment can provide long-term survival in patients with metastasized colorectal cancer.
Disulfide cyclization of protected peptide assembled on oxime resin
Tetrahedron Letters - - Trang 1295-1298 - 1993
Norikazu Nishino, Hisakazu Mihara, Naoyuki Izumi, Tsutomu Fujimoto
Bifurcations of Minimal Fillings for Four Points on the Euclidean Plane
Journal of Mathematical Sciences - - Trang 748-753 - 2021
E. I. Stepanova
A minimal filling of a finite metric space is a weighted graph of a minimal possible weight spanning this space so that the weight of any path in it is not less than the distance between its ends. Bifurcation diagrams of types and the weight of minimal fillings for four points of the Euclidean plane are built in the present work.
5500 Phages examined in the electron microscope
Archives of Virology - - Trang 227-243 - 2006
H.-W. Ackermann
“Phages” include viruses of eubacteria and archaea. At least 5568 phages have been examined in the electron microscope since the introduction of negative staining in 1959. Most virions (96%) are tailed. Only 208 phages (3.7%) are polyhedral, filamentous, or pleomorphic. Phages belong to one order, 17 families, and three “floating” groups. Phages are found in 11 eubacterial and archaeal phyla and infect 154 host genera, mostly of the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Of the tailed phages, 61% have long, noncontractile tails and belong to the family Siphoviridae. Convergent evolution is visible in the morphology of certain phage groups.
α-Synuclein from platelets is not phosphorylated at serine 129 in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy
Neuroscience Letters - - Trang 223-225 - 2006
Clifford W. Shults, Jennifer M. Barrett, Deborah Fontaine
The “High Solubility” Definition of the Current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System May Be Too Strict for Acidic Drugs
Pharmaceutical Research - - Trang 293-299 - 2004
Mehran Yazdanian, Katherine Briggs, Corinne Jankovsky, Amale Hawi
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. Methods. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in bio-relevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. Results. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0, and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pK a values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1, and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen, and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs (high solubility-high permeability) relative to solubility at pH 7.4. The use of bio-relevant media simulating gastric and intestinal milieu for solubility measurements or increasing the dose volume to 500 ml did not provide for a better boundary for solubility classification. Conclusions. Based on the current definition of solubility, 15 of the 18 acidic NSAIDs in this study will be classified as Class II compounds as the solubility criteria applies to the entire pH range of 1.2 to 7.4, although the low solubility criteria does not hold true over the entire pH range. Whence, of the 18 acidic drugs, 15 can be classified as Class I based on the pH 7.4 solubility alone. This finding is intriguing because these drugs exhibit Class I behavior as their absorption does not seem to be dissolution or solubility limited. It could then be argued that for acidic drugs, the boundaries for solubility are too restrictive. Solubility at pH > 5 (pH in duodenum) may be more appropriate because most compounds are mainly absorbed in the intestinal region. Consideration for an intermediate solubility classification for highly permeable ionizable compounds that reflects physiological conditions seems warranted.
Effects of spalling fault on dynamic responses of gear system considering three-dimensional line contact elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication
Engineering Failure Analysis - - Trang 105930 - 2022
Liming Wang, Chunlong Deng, Jin Xu, Lei Yin, Wennian Yu, Xiaoxi Ding, Yimin Shao, Wenbin Huang, Xiaoqing Yang
Quasinormal Modes of Black Holes
Resonance - - Trang 1353-1367 - 2020
Gurbir S. Arora, P. Ramadevi
One typically disturbs a system from equilibrium and studies its behavior to understand its stability. This procedure gives insight into the dynamics at play. It is one of the few techniques used in all areas of physics, be it Newtonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, or general relativity. We have continued this effort by disturbing black holes. We will see that a black hole chimes like a bell when it is disturbed. We will study this chiming mathematically in Schwarzschild black holes.
GPR10 gene deletion in mice increases basal neuronal activity, disturbs insulin sensitivity and alters lipid homeostasis
Gene - - Trang 145427 - 2021
Veronika Pražienková, Jiří Funda, Zdenko Pirník, Alena Karnošová, Lucie Hrubá, Lucia Kořínková, Barbora Neprašová, Petra Janovská, Michal Benzce, Michaela Kadlecová, Jaroslav Blahoš, Jan Kopecký, Blanka Železná, Jaroslav Kuneš, Kristina Bardová, Lenka Maletínská
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